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    Macadamia

Below is an extract from a pollination research paper prepared by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC).  To download the document, simply click on the image on the left of this screen.

Several studies in Hawaii cited by Wallace et al. (1996) have claimed that pollination by the honey bee Apis mellifera was responsible for increases in yield when honey bees were placed in an orchard (Shigeura Lee and Silva 1970, as cited in Wallace et al. 1996) and better yield and nut quality with cross-pollination in mixed block planting and honey bee introduction (Ito and Hamilton 1980, as cited in Wallace et al. 1996).

In Australia, the major pollinators in commercial macadamia plantations are from two genera of social bees: the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, and native bees of the genus Trigona (Vithanage and Ironside 1986).  The behaviour of these species of bees influences their effectiveness as pollinators.  Pollen collectors of both genera consistently make contact with the stigma of macadamia since pollen is presented on the swollen tip of the style adjacent to the stigma (Heard and Exley 1994).   

A study by Heard (1993) in southern Queensland found that initial and final nut set on racemes significantly increased with increasing insect visitation. 

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